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      液壓機結構分析,液壓機的分類

      液壓機結構分析,液壓機的分類

      作者:admin    來源:未知    發布時間:2020-07-11 23:29    瀏覽量:

      液壓機驅動系統

      液壓機的驅動系統主要有泵直接驅動和泵-蓄能器驅動兩種型式。泵直接驅動系統的泵向液壓缸提供高壓工作液體,配流閥用來改變供液方向,溢流閥用來調節系統的限定壓強,同時起安全溢流作用。這種驅動系統環節少,結構簡單,壓強能按所需的工作力自動增減,減少了電能消耗,但須由液壓機的最大工作力和最高工作速度來決定泵及其驅動電機的容量。這種型式的驅動系統多用于中小型液壓機,也有用泵直接驅動的大型(如120000千牛)自由鍛造水壓機。

      泵-蓄能器驅動  在這種驅動系統中有一個或一組蓄能器。當泵所供給的高壓工作液有余量時,由蓄能器儲存;而當供給量不足于需要時,便由蓄能器補充供給。采用這種系統可以按高壓工作液的平均用量選用泵和電動機的容量,但因為工作液的壓強是恒定的,電能消耗量較大,并且系統的環節多,結構比較復雜。這種驅動系統多用于大型液壓機,或者用一套驅動系統驅動數臺液壓機。

      液壓機結構型式

      按作用力的方向區分,液壓機有立式和臥式兩種。多數液壓機為立式,擠壓用液壓機則多用臥式。按結構型式分,液壓機有雙柱、四柱、八柱、焊接框架和多層鋼帶纏繞框架等型式,中、小型立式液壓機還有用C型架式的。C型架式液壓機三面敞開,操作方便,但剛性差。沖壓用的焊接框架式液壓機剛性好,前后敞開,但左右封閉。在上傳動的立式四柱自由鍛造液壓機中,油缸固定在上梁中,柱塞與活動橫梁剛性連接,活動橫梁由立柱導向,在工作液的壓強作用下上下移動。橫梁上有可以前后移動的工作臺。在活動橫梁下和工作臺面上分別安裝上砧和下砧。工作力由上、下橫梁和立柱組成的框架承受。 采用泵-蓄能器驅動的大、中型的自由鍛水壓機常采用三個工作缸,以得到三級工作力。工作缸外還設有向上施加力的平衡缸和回程缸。

      液壓機的分類

      按結構形式現主要分為:四柱式、單柱式(C型)、臥式、立式框架、萬能液壓機等。

      按用途主要分為金屬成型、折彎、拉伸、沖裁、粉末(金屬,非金屬)成型、壓裝、擠壓等。

      熱鍛液壓機

      大型鍛造液壓機是能夠完成各種自由鍛造工藝的鍛造設備,是鍛造行業使用最廣泛的設備之一。目前有800T、1600T、2000T、2500T、3150T、4000T、5000T等系列規格的鍛造液壓機。

      四柱液壓機

      該液壓機適用于可塑性材料的壓制工藝。如粉末制品成型、塑料制品成型、冷(熱)擠壓金屬成型、薄板拉伸以及橫壓、彎壓、翻透、校正等工藝。

      四柱液壓機可分為四柱兩梁液壓機、四柱三梁液壓機、四柱四梁液壓機等。

      單臂液壓機(單柱液壓機)

      可擴展工作范圍,利用三面空間,加長液壓缸行程(可選裝),最大可伸縮260mm-800mm,可預置工作壓力;液壓系統散熱裝置。

      龍門式液壓機

      可對機器零部件進行裝配、拆卸、校直、壓延、拉伸、折彎、沖孔等工作,真正實現一機多用。該機工作臺能上下移動,大小擴展了機器開合高度,使用更方便。

      雙柱液壓機

      本系列產品適用于各類零部件的壓裝、調彎整形、壓印壓痕、翻邊、沖孔及小零件的淺拉伸;金屬粉末制品的成型等加工工藝。采用電動控制,設有點動及半自動循環,可保壓延時,并具有良好的滑塊導向性,操作方便、易于維修、經濟耐用。根據用戶的需要可增設熱工儀表、頂出缸、行程數顯、計數等功能。

       

       

      Drive system of hydraulic press

      The driving system of hydraulic press mainly includes two types: direct pump drive and pump accumulator drive. The pump of the direct drive system supplies high pressure working fluid to the hydraulic cylinder, the valve is used to change the direction of liquid supply, and the relief valve is used to adjust the limited pressure of the system, and at the same time, it plays a safe overflow role. This kind of drive system has few links and simple structure. The pressure can automatically increase or decrease according to the required working force, thus reducing the power consumption. However, the capacity of the pump and its driving motor must be determined by the maximum working force and maximum working speed of the hydraulic press. This type of drive system is mostly used in small and medium-sized hydraulic presses, as well as large-scale (such as 120000 KN) free forging hydraulic presses driven directly by pumps.

      Pump accumulator drive there is one or a group of accumulators in this drive system. When the high-pressure working fluid supplied by the pump has a surplus, it is stored by the accumulator; when the supply is insufficient, it is supplied by the accumulator. With this system, the capacity of pump and motor can be selected according to the average consumption of high-pressure working fluid, but because the pressure of working fluid is constant, the power consumption is large, and the system has many links and the structure is relatively complex. This kind of drive system is mostly used in large hydraulic press, or several hydraulic presses are driven by a set of drive system.

      Structure type of hydraulic press

      According to the direction of the force, there are two types of hydraulic press: vertical and horizontal. Most of the hydraulic presses are vertical, while the extrusion presses are mostly horizontal. According to the structure type, the hydraulic press has double column, four column, eight column, welded frame and multi-layer steel belt winding frame, etc. the medium and small vertical hydraulic press also has C-type frame type. C-frame hydraulic press is open on three sides, easy to operate, but poor rigidity. The welding frame type hydraulic press for stamping has good rigidity, open in front and back, but closed in left and right. In the vertical four column free forging hydraulic press, the oil cylinder is fixed in the upper beam, and the plunger is rigidly connected with the movable beam. The movable beam is guided by the column and moves up and down under the pressure of the working fluid. The beam has a table that can be moved back and forth. The upper anvil and the lower anvil are respectively installed under the movable crossbeam and on the worktable. The working force is borne by the frame composed of upper and lower beams and columns. Large and medium-sized free forging hydraulic press driven by pump accumulator usually adopts three working cylinders to obtain three-stage working force. The working cylinder is also provided with a balance cylinder and a return cylinder which exert force upward.

      Classification of hydraulic press

      According to the structure, it is mainly divided into: four column type, single column type (C type), horizontal, vertical frame, universal hydraulic press, etc.

      It can be divided into metal forming, bending, stretching, blanking, powder (metal, non-metallic) forming, pressing, extrusion, etc.

      Hot forging hydraulic press

      Large forging hydraulic press is one of the most widely used equipment in forging industry, which can complete all kinds of free forging process. At present, there are 800t, 1600t, 2000t, 2500t, 3150T, 4000t and 5000t forging hydraulic presses.

      Four column hydraulic press

      The hydraulic press is suitable for the pressing process of plastic materials. Such as powder products molding, plastic products molding, cold (hot) extrusion metal forming, sheet stretching and cross pressing, bending pressing, turning through, correction and other processes.

      Four column hydraulic press can be divided into four column two beam hydraulic press, four column three beam hydraulic press, four column four beam hydraulic press, etc.

      Single arm hydraulic press (single column hydraulic press)

      The hydraulic cylinder stroke can be extended (optional) by using the three-dimensional space, and the maximum telescopic range is 260mm-800mm, and the working pressure can be preset; the cooling device of the hydraulic system.

      Gantry hydraulic press

      The machine parts can be assembled, disassembled, straightened, calendered, stretched, bent, punched and so on, so as to realize the multi-purpose of one machine. The working table of the machine can move up and down, and the size of the machine expands the opening and closing height of the machine, so it is more convenient to use.

      Double column hydraulic press

      This series of products are suitable for pressing, bending and shaping of various parts, indentation, flanging, punching and shallow drawing of small parts, forming of metal powder products, etc. It adopts electric control, with inching and semi-automatic circulation, which can keep pressure and delay, and has good slide guiding property. It is easy to operate, easy to maintain, economical and durable. According to the needs of users, it can add thermal instrument, ejection cylinder, stroke digital display, counting and other functions.

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